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英语语法、词法、句法框架概述
作者:佚名  文章来源:本站原创  点击数:183  

点此下载 英语语法、词法、句法框架概述

 

 

一、  词法

Ø  数量:10大类

Ø  分类依据:形式特征、意义、句法作用 

词类

定义

例词

实词

Notional

word

名词

Noun

表示事物名称的词

Market, people, water, information

代词

Pronoun

代替名词或名词所有格的词

I, me, we, your, hers, all, nothing

动词

Verb

表示动作或状态的词

Are, do, go, eat

形容词

Adjective

表示人或事物性质特征的词

Young, fast, excellent

副词

Adverb

表示动作、状态、性质的程度的词

Very, well, always

数词

Numeral

表示数目或顺序的词

One, first, thousand

虚词

Empty

Word

冠词

Article

名词前,说明名词含义

A, an, the

介词

Proposition

名词或代词之间,表关系

Of, to, after,

连词

Conjunction

连接,“关节”之意

And, but, if

感叹词

Injection

情感态度的词

Oh, ah, well

 

二、  句法

Ø  分类方法:按成分、按类别

1.  句子成分

成分

充当词

例句

主语 subject——

“谁”“什么”

动作或状态的发出者

名词

人称代词

物主代词

指示代词

疑问代词

不定代词

基数词

序数词

形容词

不定式

动名词

从句

 

Noun

Personal pronoun

Possessive pronoun

Demonstrative pronoun

Interrogative pronoun

Indefinite pronoun

Cardinal numeral

Ordinal numeral

Adjective

Infinitive

Gerund

clause

 

The sun gives us light and heat.

We love life.

Your idea is good, but mine is better.

This is my favorite teacher.

What is the most important thing in your life?

Nobody can stop me studying.

Two of you are my best students.

The second is my sister.

The old should be taken care of in our country.

To talk is easier than to do.

Helping others can bring us happiness.

What you did is better than what you said.

 

谓语 predicate——

主语的动作或状态

实意动词

联系动词

 

Notional verb

Linking verb

 

We plan to review our lessons in three months.

We are Chinese.

宾语 object——

及物动词或及物动词短语的对象或内容

名词

人称代词

反身代词

指示代词

疑问代词

不定代词

物主代词

相互代词

 

Noun

Personal pronoun

Reflexive pronoun

Demonstrative pronoun

Interrogative pronoun

Infinitive pronoun

Possessive pronoun

Reciprocal pronoun

 

Nowadays many foreigners are learning Chinese.

He fools us all.

Believe in yourself.

I thank you will like this.

Who are you waiting for?

They got everything they want.

He is an old friends of hers.

We should learn to respect each other.

宾语补足语

object complement——

宾语之后,补充说明

形容词

副词

名词

介词短语

不定式

现在分词

过去分词

Adjective

Adverb

Noun

Prepositional phrase

Infinitive

Present participle

Past participle

That news will make mother happy.

Let me show you out.

We chose Tom our monitor.

Jerry found him in a strange world.

Do not force me to do anything I don’t like.

Don’t keep me waiting too long.

They ran away and left the work unfinished.

表语 predictive——

说明主语,“补足语”

形容词

副词

指示代词

疑问代词

不定代词

基数词

序数词

介词短语

不定式

动名词

现在分词

过去分词

从句

Adjective

Adverb

Demonstrative pronoun

Interrogative pronoun

Indefinite pronoun

Cardinal numeral

Ordinal numeral

Prepositional phrase

Infinitive

Gerund

Present participle

Past participle

clause

The mountains are green.

Time is up.

What I want is this.

I wander who you are.

It is nothing serious.

Two plus two is four.

My mother is always the first to get up.

The watch is just under the table.

My job is to clean the road.

His bobby is collecting stamps.

The result is disappointing.

We are disappointed to the result.

That is what IQ means.

定语 attribute——

修饰名词或代词

名词

形容词

副词

物主代词

指示代词

疑问代词

不定代词

基数词

序数词

介词短语

不定式

动名词

现在分词

过去分词

从句

Noun

Adjective

Adverb

Possessive pronoun

Demonstrative pronoun

Interrogative pronoun

Indefinite pronoun

Cardinal numeral

Ordinal numeral

Prepositional phrase

Infinitive

Gerund

Present participle

Past participle

clause

He works in a car factory.

Now the world is just like a small village.

The native there are very friendly.

Their invention won the world prize.

These wild plants are well protected.

Which river is the longest in the world?

Both his parents are doctors.

The organization contains eight countries.

He was the fifth player to receive the honor.

Many secrets in space remain unknown.

So I have nothing to say for myself.

I bought a walking stick for my grandfather.

Tom got injured by a falling tree.

They reached an old house built 200 years ago.

Those who drink water will not forget the people who dig the well.

状语 adverbial——

位置随意,修饰任意

动词、副词、形容词

从句、全句

名词

形容词

副词

不定式

现在分词

过去分词

介词短语

从句

独立主格

Noun

Adjective

Adverb

Infinitive

Present participle

Past participle

Prepositional phrase

Clause

nominative absolute structure

Li Ming is one year old than I.

The travelers came back, safe and sound.

The son often write to his parents.

Mother went to buy something in the market.

He stood up, looking at the boss coldly.

Led by the natives, we found the old castle.

From the space the astronaut saw a blue globe.

Where there is smoke, there is fire.

Weather permitting, we will go for a

同位语 appositive——

前名词、代词的具体内容

名词

代词

数词

从句

Noun

Pronoun

Numeral

clause

Miss Wu, our English teacher, is kind to us.

They each have a PC.

I have prepared a nice dinner for you two.

We’ve got the news that our team won the match.

 

2.  句子类别

Ø  分类:按使用目的、按结构

(1)   按使用目的:陈述句、疑问句、祈使句、感叹句

类别

例句

陈述句

Declarative

sentence

肯定句

Assertive sentence

His name was Pangu.

She began searching for that something.

否定句

Negative sentence

I can not agree with you.

It doesn’t matter.

疑问句

Question

sentence

一般疑问句

General question

Did Italy win the World Cap?

Is that film interesting?

特殊疑问句

Special question

What is your name?

Where can you find the answer

选择疑问句

Alternative question

Are you a teacher or a student

Do you like coffee or tea

反义疑问句

Disjunctive question

It is fine day, isn’t it?

No one accepted your offer, did they?

祈使句

imperative sentence

Do not take everything for granted!

Follow me, please.

感叹句

exclamatory sentence

What a good teacher he is!

How good a teacher he is!

 

(2)按结构:简单句、并列句、复合句

类别

例句

简单句 simple sentence

5种基本类型

S+VI

The sun rises in the east.

S+VT+O

Many families keep pets.

S+V+C

China is still a developing country.

S+VT+O1+O2

He sent me an e-mail yesterday.

S+VT+O+C

My girl always makes me happy.

并列句

Coordinate sentence

He likes to watch TV but I like to read books.

You can do your homework first and then you can play with your friends.

复合句

Complex sentence

名词性从句

Noun clause

主语从句 subject

宾语从句object

表语从句 predicative

同位语从句appositive

What you said is true.

You knew that beauty should be natural.

That is when I studied.

He made a promise that he would come back.

状语从句

Adverbial clause

时间状语 time

条件状语condition

原因状语 cause

目的状语 purpose

结果状语 result

地点状语 place

让步状语 concession

方式状语 manner

比较状语 comparison

We have finished the work before the came.

If it rains, we have to stay at home.

She was absent because she was ill.

He left home early in order that he could work.

Tom was so tired that he fell behind.

Lucy found her MP3 where she lost it.

Though I am poor, I am happy.

Do it as I do.

You are stronger than I am.

定语从句

attributive clause

Do you know the boy who is playing basketball?

This is the result that I wanted.

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